The Central Asian (CA) Republics have large energy resource potential relative to their domestic needs. However, hydro-rich countries like Tajikistan have not been able to realize their potential, in part because of the significant resources needed to develop the associated transmission lines and the lack of regional cooperation. The result is that a lot of water is wastefully spilled in summer without any electricity generation.
Tajikistan is heavily dependent on hydroelectric power, with about 95 percent of the electricity generated are coming from hydroelectric sources. The power balance is highly seasonal, resulting in power generation far exceeding demand in summer and deficits occurring in winter. The electric transmission and distribution system is in serious need of improvement and modernization. As a result, Tajikistan is forced to import and export a significant amount of power. This imperfect system has also led to inconsistent power supply to remote areas. More energy producing capacity is needed to resolve domestic energy problems and provide them the ability to export electricity to neighboring countries.
Afghanistan (AF), the Kyrgyz Republic (KR), Pakistan (PK) and Tajikistan (TJ) have been pursuing the development of electricity trading arrangements and the establishment of a Central Asia - South Asia Regional Electricity Market (CASAREM) for a number of years. One of the key components of this initiative is the development of the cross-border transmission interconnection between these countries to facilitate the transfer of surplus power within the region. The development of the first phase of CASAREM, which is to establish the necessary transmission and trading infrastructure and systems to enable a trade of 1000 MW to 1300 MW of electricity between Central Asia and South Asia, is referred to as “CASA-1000”.
The CASA 1000 project comprises construction of a transmission line to enable electricity exports from Tajikistan and the Kyrgyz Republic to Afghanistan and Pakistan. The recommended project configuration is as follows:
A 500 kV AC line from Datka to Khujand (477 km) to transfer the surplus power from the Kyrgyz Republic to Tajikistan, where the internal network transfers this power to Sangtuda;
A 500kV single-circuit AC line (115km) in Tajikistan between Regar and Sangtuda substations;
A 1,300 MW AC-DC convertor Station in Sangtuda;
A 750 km HVDC line from Sangtuda to Peshawar via the Salang Pass and Kabul;
A 300 MW DC-AC convertor Station in Kabul; and
A 1,300 MW DC-AC convertor Station in Peshawar.
The length of the HVDC line is 117 km in Tajikistan, 562 km in Afghanistan and 71 km in Pakistan.
(More information can be read from a file)